Computer Programs

Google Chrome

Google Chrome

Google Chrome Disambig gray RTL.svg This article is about the web browser. For the operating system, see Chrome OS.

Google Chrome is a proprietary web browser developed by Google, and it works on most operating systems. It was first released in 2008 for the Microsoft Windows operating system, and was later ported to Linux, Mac OS X, iOS, and Android as the default browser built into the operating system. The browser is also the main component of Chrome OS, serving as a platform for web applications.

Google Chrome Its construction was based on the open source browser Chromium, which contains some ready-made open source components such as WebKit, which Google Chrome was using until version 27 except for its iOS version. Starting with version 28 it used Google Chrome Blink, a modification of the WebKit.

The most important things that were kept in mind from the start while designing were stability, speed, security, and a simple, efficient, and easy-to-use user interface. The browser supports the user interface in several languages, including Arabic.

As of November 2020, Stat Counter estimates that Chrome holds 70% of the worldwide browser market share (having peaked at 72.38% in November 2018) on PC, and 66.12% across all systems. the basic. Because of this success, Google has expanded the “Chrome” brand name to include other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebooks, and Chromebase.

Design Google Chrome

The design of the browser was based mainly on security, speed and stability compared to existing browsers.

The beginning of the idea Google Chrome

The idea of ​​creating the Google Chrome browser actually started when the Google Gears team was suffering from the problem that browsers use one thread to perform all operations.

History Google Chrome

Google CEO Eric Schmidt has opposed the development of a standalone web browser for six years. “Google was a small company at the time,” he stated, and he didn’t want to go through the “bruising of the browser war.” After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Firefox developers and created a Chrome demo, Schmidt said, “It was so good that it forced me to change my mind.”

In September 2004, rumors emerged that Google was creating a web browser for the first time. Online magazines and US newspapers at the time reported that Google was hiring ex-Microsoft web developers among others. Chrome came shortly after the recent release of Firefox 1.0, which was growing in popularity and taking market share from Internet Explorer, which had significant security issues. The development of the Chrome browser was led by Sander Pichai.

Since early 2007 (if not long before), rumors about a web browser design by Google have been circulating on the Internet. Google purchased the domain name “Internet Browser J”, and the letter “G” stands for Google as it does for Gmail.

announcement Google Chrome

Google Chrome for Europe shipped early and German blogger Philip Linsen of Google Blogoscoped made a scanned copy of the 38-page comic book available on their website after receiving it on September 1, 2008. He explained that the company was weak at the time and that he did not want to suffer the damages of a competitive war with the great sailors of the time. After that, the founders hired several Firefox developers and created a beta version of Chrome. Since then, Eric Schmidt changed his mind and later became a huge supporter of Chrome and Chrome OS.

Public Release Google Chrome

Google Chrome On September 2, 2008, Google Chrome browser was first released publicly for Windows XP (and later versions), with 43 languages ​​supported as an official beta and as a stable public release on December 11, 2008. On the same day, news broke. Cnet drew attention to a section in the beta Terms of Service statement, which appears to grant Google a license to all content transferred through Chrome. This section is inherited from Google’s General Terms of Service. Google immediately responded to this criticism by saying that the language used was borrowed from other products, and removed this section from its terms of service.

Chrome quickly gained around 1% usage share. After the initial increase, the usage share decreased until it reached 0.69% in October 2008. Then it started to rise again. By December 2008, Chrome crossed the 1% threshold again.

Google Chrome In early January 2009, Cnet reported that Google plans to release Chrome versions for Linux and OS X in the first half of the year. The first official previews of Chrome for OSX and Linux developers were announced on June 4, 2009, with a blog post shared stating that it is missing several features and that its release is intended for early feedback and not general use. In December 2009, Google released beta versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux. Version 5.0, announced on May 25, 2010, was the first stable release to support all three platforms.

Development

Google created “Gess” for Chrome, which added features for developer Web applications are typically related to creating web applications, including offline support. Google phased out GES as the same functionality became available in the HTML 5 standards.

On January 11, 2011, Chrome Product Manager, Mike Jazairi, announced that Chrome would remove support for the H264 video encoding for the special HTML5 player. It did, citing a desire to bring Google Chrome more in line with the open codecs currently available in the Chromium project on which Chrome relies. However, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows that added the H264 video decoding hardware accelerator. In October 2013, Cisco announced that it was open source for the H264 codec and would cover all required fees.

On February 7, 2012, Google released “Google Chrome Beta” for Android 4.0 devices. On many new devices running pre-installed Android 4.1 and later, Chrome is the default browser. In May 2017, Google announced the release of Chrome for augmented and virtual reality devices.

Features Google Chrome

Google Chrome has a simplified user interface, with UI principles applied later in other browsers. For example, combining the address bar and search bar into the omnibox. Chrome also has a good reputation for strong browser performance.

Bookmarks and Settings Sync

Chrome allows users to sync their bookmarks, history, and settings across all devices with the browser. This is done by sending and receiving data through a Google account, which in turn updates all logins in Chrome. This can be authenticated with your Google credentials or a sync passphrase.

Browser architecture and multiple processes

To solve the previous problem, the developer team for Google Chrome browser took the idea of ​​​​multi-threads from the philosophy of operating systems. So that each web page opened in the browser runs its own process and its own memory. This feature is very useful, especially in cases where one of the pages causes the browser to crash and all open pages. In the case of multiple threads, only the open page will be affected, while the other pages will be isolated from danger. At the same time, it will be possible to release the memory and return it to the list of vacant places automatically without loss.

Performance

Google Chrome browser relied on the fast-performing open source “WebKit” development package as the engine for rendering web pages. This package is the same as that used in the Android mobile operating system that Google is currently developing. The new idea in the browser is to develop a high-speed JavaScript engine called “V8” and runs on the virtual machine environment. This part of the project was developed by a team of Danish developers for Google. V8 has the advantage of using a threaded object approach in its work so that errors can be easily tracked as they occur.

Support for web standards

The first version of Google Chrome passed both ACID1 and ACID2 tests. Starting with version 4.0, Chrome has passed all aspects of the ACID3 test.

As of May 2011, Chrome has very good support for JavaScript according to the 262 standards compatibility test. This test reports the number of tests the browser failed as the final result; So lower scores are better. In this test, Chrome version 37 scored 10 fail points / passed 11578. For comparison, Firefox 19 scored 193 fail points / 11,752 passed and Internet Explorer 9 scored 600+ failures, while Internet Explorer 10 failed 7 points.

In 2011, in the official Cascading Style Sheet 2.1 test suite by the World Wide Web Association standardization organization, WebKit, the Chrome rendering engine, passed 89.75% (89.38% of 99.59% covered) “Cascading Style Sheets 2.1” tests.

In the HTML5 web standards test, Chrome 41 scored 518 out of 555 points, placing it ahead of the five most popular desktop browsers. Chrome scores 41 on Android 510 out of 555 points. Chrome scores 44 526, just 29 points below the maximum.

User Interface

. Whatever the environment, the design is simple and uncluttered, according to its designer’s habit. In Microsoft Windows, Chrome implements the Luna interface for Windows XP and Windows Aero for Windows Vista and 7. inclusion of the address bar and controls in each tab. In this way, Google ensures that the address bar and tools go with the tab when moved or locked, giving the lowest possible interface, and freeing up space for viewing web pages. As for the browser’s start pages, Google Chrome has replaced it with a new philosophy where a matrix of the nine most visited sites and a list of always searched sites appear on one page and in a harmonious order.

. This subtle change contrasts with many of the current tabbed, window-based and tab-based browsers. Each tab has its own set of controls, including an omnibox.

An omnibox is a “unified resource locator” box that combines the functionality of both an address bar and a search box. If a user enters the URL of a previously searched site, Chrome allows clicking on the tab to search the site again directly from the omnibox. When the user begins typing in the omnibox, Chrome makes suggestions for previously visited sites (based on the URL or text on the page), and popular websites (that they haven’t necessarily visited before – powered by a search Google Instant) and popular searches. Chrome will also autocomplete Uniform Resource Locator addresses for frequently visited sites. If a user types keywords in the omnibox that don’t match any previously visited websites and hits enter, Chrome will perform the search using the default search engine.

One of Chrome’s distinguishing features is the new tab page, which can replace the browser’s home page and be displayed when a new tab is created. Originally, this displayed thumbnails of the nine most visited websites, along with frequent searches, recent bookmarks, and recently closed tabs; Similar to Internet Explorer and Firefox with Google Toolbar, or Speed ​​Dial in Opera. It also has a “Recently Closed” bar that shows recently closed tabs and a “Hints” section that shows tips and tricks for using the browser.

Chrome has a bookmarks submenu that lists the user’s bookmarks, provides easy access to Chrome’s bookmark manager, and allows the user to toggle the bookmarks bar on or off.

For web developers, Chrome features an Object Inspector (Web Development Toolkit), similar to the Firefox browser extension, which allows users to look at the Document Object Model and see the components of a web page.

Chrome contains special Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) that load pages for applications rather than websites or files to disk. Chrome also has a built-in ability to enable experimental features.

In March 2011, Google introduced a new simplified logo to replace the previous 3D logo that had been in use since the inception of the project. Google designer Steve Rora explained the company’s reasons for the change: “Because Chrome “spins” making your web experience as easy and clutter-free as possible, we’ve updated the Chrome icon to better represent these sentiments. A simpler icon embodies the spirit of Chrome – to make the web faster, lighter, and easier for everyone”

In September 2013, Google began making Chrome apps “for desktop.That means offline access, desktop shortcuts, and less reliance on Chrome — apps run in a separate window from Chrome, and look more like native apps.

On January 2, 2019, Google introduced the “native dark” theme for Chrome on Windows 10.

Extensions

Examples

Dropbox

Google maps

HTTPS Everywhere

Themes

Automatic translation of web pages

Subtitles are currently available for 52 languages. .

Security and protection

Google has supported its new browser with many security and confidentiality features that we lack in today’s browsers. The second feature is to warn the user of malicious web pages such as malware and phishing by providing a gaming environment with minimal powers so that the malicious website cannot affect the victim’s machine. The same goes for browser add-ons.

Chrome uses a form to customize the automated tab process and setting of permissions. Using the “principle of least privilege”, not every tab process can interact with critical memory functions

(such as operating system memory, user files) or other tab processes – similar to

Microsoft’s “protected mode” used by Internet Explorer 9 or later. This enforces a computer security model where there are two multi-level security levels (user and sandbox) and can sandbox

only in response to user-initiated connection requests.

In January 2015, BitTorrent Free reported that using Chrome when

connecting to the Internet using a VPN could be a serious security issue due to the browser’s support for “real-time web connections”.

On December 4, 2018, Google announced the release of Chrome 71 with new security features, including a built-in ad system. Additionally, Google also announced its plan to crack down on

websites that force people to sign up for mobile subscription plans.

On September 2, 2020, with the release of Chrome 85, Google expanded “Secure DNS” support in Chrome for Android. Domain Name System-over-Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (DOH) is designed to improve security and privacy while browsing the web. Under the update, Chrome will automatically switch to DOH, if your current DNS provider supports the feature.

Password

Windows

Chrome developers have pointed out that the master password does not provide real

security against designer hackers and have refused to implement it. As of February 2014, Google Chrome requires the user to enter the Windows account password before showing saved passwords.

Linux

, Google Chrome / Chromium can store passwords in three ways:

Keying GNOME

Plain text

Google Chrome / Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, based on the desktop environment used.

Mac OS X

Google announced a new Google Chrome logo for Mac OS Big Sur to better match the operating system’s interface design.

Security Vulnerabilities

. Google Chrome Windows 7 full 64-bit version with a booby-trapped website that beat the sandbox of Chrome.

A large number of security vulnerabilities occur in Chrome in Adobe Flash Player. For example, the successful 2016 Bon2On attack on Chrome relied on four security vulnerabilities. Two of the vulnerabilities were in Flash, one in Chrome, and one in the Windows kernel. In 2016, Google announced that it plans to phase out Adobe Flash Player in Chrome, starting with version 53. The first phase

of the plan is to disable Flash ads and “background analytics”, with the ultimate goal of disabling

it completely by the end of the year, except for select sites Which Google considers disabled without it.

The leaked documents released by WikiLeaks, codenamed Volt7 and dated from

2013 to 2016, detail the CIA’s capabilities, such as the ability to hack web browsers (including Google Chrome).

Malware blocking and ad blocking

Google introduced download checking protection in Chrome 17. In February 2018,

Google introduced an ad blocking feature based on recommendations from the Interactive Advertising

Bureau.Consumer reports recommended installing dedicated ad blocking tools instead, which provide more security against malware and tracking.

Support for Java applets was available in Chrome with Java 6 Update 12 and later. Support for Java on macOS was provided by a Java update released on May 18, 2010.

On August 12, 2009, Google introduced a more portable and secure alternative to NBAPE called the Pepper Delivery API ( BPPE). The bundled default Adobe Flash Player

(or PPAPI-based Flash Player) was first available on Chrome OS, then NBAPE replaced Adobe Flash Player

on Linux from the version 20 of Chrome, on Windows version 21 (which also

reduced Flash crashes by 20%), and eventually came to Mac OS X version 23.

On September 23, 2013, Google announced that it would discontinue support for NBAPE then remove it. NPAPI plug-ins like Java can no longer work in Chrome

(but there are workarounds for Flash using PPAPI Adobe Flash Player on Linux including Chromium).

On April 14, 2015, Google released Chrome v42, to disable NBAPE by default. This makes plug-ins that don’t have a BPAPE plug-in incompatible with Chrome, such as Java, Microsoft Silverlight, and Unity. However, NBAPE support can be enabled through the Chrome

menu, until the release of version 45 on September 1, 2015, which removed NBAPE support entirely.

Stability

An attacker who successfully gained access to one app could gain

access to any other, and failure in one case results in a “Saad Mac” screen, similar to the well-known

“Sad Mac”, but only one tab crashes instead of the entire application. This strategy imposes a fixed cost per process up front, but results in less memory over time as fragmentation is limited to each instance and no more memory allocations are required. This architecture has been adopted in Safari and Firefox.

Chrome includes a process management utility called Task Manager

which allows users to see which sites and plugins are using the most memory, downloading the most bytes, overusing the CPU and providing the ability to terminate them. Task Manager can be used to prioritize processes, forcibly end processes, shutdown, reload the system, hibernate or log off. Chrome version 23 guarantees its users improved battery life for systems that support accelerated video decoding through the Chrome GPU.

Support for open standards

Just as Google Browser provides an ideal browsing environment for the user, at the same time it provides a flexible development environment for developers thanks to its adoption of open standards.

Platforms

The current version of Chrome runs on:

Windows 7 or later

El Capitan or later,

64-bit versions of Ubuntu 14.04+, Debian 8+, OpenSUSE 13.3+, Fedora 24+

, Android Lollipop or later

, iOS 12 or later,

as of April 2016, 32-bit and 64-bit stable versions are available for Windows, with only 64-bit stable versions available for Linux and Mac OS X. 64-bit versions of Windows became available on the developer channel as Canary builds on June 3, 2014, [220] in the beta channel on July 30, 2014, and in the stable channel on August 26, 2014. 64-bit versions of macOS became available with ” Canary” on November 7, 2013, in the beta channel on October 9, 2014, and in the stable channel on November 18, 2014.

Android

Google Chrome Notable Features: Sync with Chrome desktop to provide the same bookmarks and display the same browser tabs, page preview, hardware acceleration.

Many of the latest HTML5 features: Virtually all web platform features: GBU acceleration panel, including 3D CSS transitions, CSS animation, vector graphics, SVG, and web-socket (including binary messages), specialized workers; It has redundant scroll support, powerful HTML5 video support, and new capabilities such as API: Indexed Database, JavaScript: WebWorkers, Application Cache, Files and APIs (CNTFS and OFFAT), the date and time picker, and parts of the media capture API. It also supports mobile-oriented features such as device orientation and geolocation.

Features missing from the “mobile” version include: “sandbox” tabs, safe browsing,

apps or extensions, Adobe Flash (current and in the future), Google’s “local client”, and the ability to “export user data” as a list of open tabs or their browsing history to portable local files.

Development changes: Remote debugging, part of the browser layer

implemented using Java, and communication with the rest of Chromium code and WebKit through “native Java links”. Chrome for Android is an offshoot of the Chromium project. It is a priority to publish most of the new and modified code to Chromium and WebKit to solve branching.

The April 17, 2012 update included availability in 31 additional languages ​​and in all countries where Google Play is available. A “desktop” version can also be ordered from the website instead of a “mobile” version. Additionally, Android users can now add

‘Bookmarks’ to their

Android home screens and select which apps should handle open links in Chrome.

On June 27, 2012, Google Chrome for Android passed the beta stage and became stable.

Chrome 18.0.1026311, released on September 26, 2012, was the first version of Google Chrome for Android to support mobile devices based on Intel x86.

Starting with version 25, Chrome for Android aligns with the Desktop version Usually, new stable releases are available at the same time for both versions. On January 10, 2013, with version 25, Google announced the proposal of a “separate beta channel” for Chrome for Android. As of 2013, a separate beta version of Chrome is available in the Google Play Store – and it can be played alongside the stable version.

Chrome OS

The user interface has a simple design similar to the Google Chrome browser. The only apps on the devices are a browser that includes a media player and file manager. Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009.

iOS

Chrome is available on Apple’s iOS mobile operating system

as is Google Chrome for iOS.It supports iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch. . V8 Inc.

. In October 2013, Google Chrome captured 3% of the iOS browser market.

Linux

On Linux distributions, support for 32-bit Intel processors ended in March 2016, although Chromium continues to be supported. As of Google Chrome version 26, Linux installations of the browser may only be updated on systems that support GCC v4.6 and GTK v2.24 or later. Thus, deprecated systems include (for example) Debian 6′ 2.20 and Ag AHEL 6′ 2.18.

Windows

Google Chrome ended support on Windows XP and Windows Vista in April 2016. The last version of Google Chrome that could run on Windows XP and Windows Vista was version 49.0.2623.112, released on April 7, 2016, and then re-released in April 11, 2016.

. Least 15, 2022.

Made available to the developer channel, Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 users can run Chrome with a full-screen interface optimized for a tablet, with access to capture, share, and search functionality.

Mac OS

Google dropped support for Mac OS X Leopard with the release of Chrome 22. Support for 32-bit versions of Chrome ended in November 2014 with Chrome 39.

Chrome

In 2008, Matthew Moore of The Daily Telegraph summed up the verdic

t of early reviewers: “Google Chrome is attractive, fast, and has some great new features…”.

Initially, Microsoft was reported to have played down the threat from Chrome

and expected most people to adopt Internet Explorer 8. Opera Software said “Chrome will enhance the web as the world’s largest application platform”. . The credit for this trend — a boon for consumers — is due to two parties. The first is Google, whose grand plans for Chrome rocked Microsoft from its competitive slumber and forced the software giant to pay new attention to its own browser, Internet Explorer. Microsoft stopped making efforts to improve it. Then it won the latest browser war, leading to the death of Netscape. And now it’s back. The Mozilla Foundation said that “the introduction of Chrome into the web browser market comes as no real surprise”, and that “Chrome does not aim to compete with Firefox”, moreover, it will not affect Google’s earnings relationship with the Mozilla Foundation.

In 2019, Google faced similar criticism over planned changes to its extensions API for Chrome (dubbed “Minevest F3”), which would block the effectiveness of certain

forms of ad blocking software by preventing the use of Webquesti PE – Web Request” to block and modify network connections. Google intends to migrate the extensions to another API

known as DKLGTV Web Request API, which allows the extension to set up pre-made rules that are processed by the browser itself rather than the extension. However, concerns about how well the API will perform,

along with concerns about limiting the number of entries that might be

blacklisted, has led to criticism that these changes were designed to prevent ad

blocking (citing Google’s well-established interest in the online advertising industry). ). Google cited performance issues associated with

“WebRequest”, as it requires all network traffic to pass through the extension before the page loads, as well as its use in malicious plugins, as the justification for these changes. In June 2019, it announced that it would increase the aforementioned cap from 30,000 to 150,000 entries to help allay concerns.

Usage

In November 2011, Chrome surpassed Firefox worldwide usage. According to StatCounter,

as of June 2016, Chrome had 62% of the worldwide desktop usage share, making

it the most used web browser, while Firefox had 16% and Internet Explorer had 12%.

Along with Safari and Mozilla Firefox, Chrome receives a weekend boost, boosting

its market share by as much as three percentage points over the weekend, at the expense of Internet Explorer.

Stat Counter, a web analytics company, reported that as of March 18, 2012, Chrome was the world’s most used web browser for the first time. Chrome accounted for 32.7% of global web browsing that day, while Internet Explorer followed with 32.5%.

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